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It is intended to provide helpful and informative material on the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering profes- sional services in the book. If the reader requires personal assistance or advice, a com- petent professional should be consulted. The author and publisher specifically disclaim any responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indi- rectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of this book.

(HRG) Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli-A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian-Routledge (2007)

In addition, theres a quick grammar refresher to get your language studies started on the right foot. Learn how to determine the subject in a sentence. Learn about prepositions and the im- perative verb tense. Study your numbers to log those kilometers and talk about time. Express your desires with volere to want , your potential with potere to be able to , and what youve got to do with dovere to have to. Express your pleasure with the verb piacere.

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See how reflexive verbs work. Learn how to talk about what you had been doing using the passato prossimo. Learn how to talk about what used to be with the imperfect tense. See how to use the future tense to talk about what will be. Want to rent a villa? In the examples above, the actions are clearly not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio…le mani, io…la giacca, io…la barba. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba. The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani.

Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani. See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani.

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  • Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna.

    We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two persons are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action. The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta. Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Ho incontrato il dott. Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Tonight we'll watc h a nice film.

    Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I'm hungry! I really want a pizza!

    Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I've forgotten the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects.

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    However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the persons carrying out these actions. The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Ho dimenticato le chiavi. Don't be ashamed of this mi stake. It's not your fault. Giulia regretted having accepted that job.

    (PDF) ITALIAN grammar | amit singh -

    Hurry up! Don't you realize tha t it's late? Non arrabbiarti! Don't be angry! Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs. One works better in cool weather. Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance.

    A tavola non si invecchia. One doesn't get old at t he dinner table. Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating. Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb. Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simplified tables in 2. We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs normally remain the same or invariable throughout the whole system of moods and tenses. Learning the changes of the ending the variable part of the verb will allow us to know all the possible forms of most Italian verbs.

    Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the more frequent. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary essere see below 2. In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with the gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere. Remember that only transitive verbs see above 2.

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    Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language. Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere. Sometimes several verbs may be grouped under a common pattern of irregularity, and this can help us to memorize the many but not always unpredictable!

    The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs. A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. They share a common characteristic: they are often used in combination with another verb. I had to close the office yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il dott.

    When can we meet Dr Salvi?

    Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses. NB: Use of the asterisk is explained on p. In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to.